2017 NCSM Annual Conference

Strand 4 Sessions

Session information last updated: 4-17-2017

 
Strand 4 Sessions, Monday, April 3
 
Strand 4: Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership


1116  9:30 AM to
10:30 AM
Lone Star AGeneralRegular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Principles to Action: Strengthening Girls' Mathematics Identity for the 21st Century Classroom and Workforce
From an early age, girls are taught that math success is an innate ability that they lack and being feminine and good at math are mutually exclusive. We will review brain science, programs, strategies and techniques that support positive reinforcement of girls' math identity and present best practices and general recommendations for what to do and not do when designing instructional strategies and programs to improve girls' math identity.

 

Lead Speaker: Lorraine Howard

1119  9:30 AM to
10:30 AM
Bowie A-CElementary
(K—5)
Regular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Gut Instincts: Developing ALL Students' Mathematical Intuitions
We’ve long misunderstood mathematical intuition, assuming it’s innate rather than developed through high-quality learning experiences. As a result, students who haven’t yet had opportunities to foster their intuitions are often denied access to meaningful mathematics. Through analysis of powerful classroom teaching and learning, we’ll explore three instructional strategies you can use to empower ALL students to grasp mathematics intuitively.

 

Lead Speaker: Tracy Zager

 

Handout: NCSM17_1119_Zager.pdf

1301  11:15 AM to
12:15 PM
Texas E-FGeneralMajor PresentationEmpowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Sticks and Stones: An Invitation to Consider the Impact of Language in Mathematics Education
In what ways does our use of language in mathematics carry messages that may unintentionally privilege some students and families while marginalizing others? Recognizing that engaging in the work of social justice in mathematics education may require challenging and potentially painful shifts in practices, this session builds on the joint position statement on social justice, set forth by NCSM and TODOS: Mathematics for All, and serves as an invitation to consider purposeful steps to update our use of language, from the classroom to official policy documents. As such, drawing heavily from Critical Race Theory and employing critical discourse analysis, this session will explore some of the ways our words may land upon our students and their families, and encourage conversation around ways to reframe and recast what we write and say in all of our work related to mathematics education.

 

Lead Speaker: Anita Bright

1307  11:15 AM to
12:15 PM
Travis A-BHigh School
(9—12)
Regular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

How to Create a System that Promotes Equity in a Large Urban District
Learn how a large urban school district has worked to create equity in mathematics classrooms across 17 high schools. The presenters will discuss the processes used to guarantee that all students regardless of teacher will learn the same content with the same rigorous expectations. Participants will learn how equity has been created and develop an implementation plan that meets the needs of their school or district.

 

Lead Speaker: Kris Cunningham
Co-Presenter: Jeanette Scott

 

Handout: NCSM17_1307_Cunningham-Scott.pdf

1505  12:30 PM to
1:30 PM
Republic A-CGeneralRegular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Leveraging TRU (Teaching for Robust Understanding of) Math Within Classroom Coaching to Increase Access and Equity
What happens to student achievement when teachers and coaches focus their collaborative work on equity for all students by using the dimensions of TRU Math? How does increased access to content and agency, authority, and identity impact students' ability to problem solve? Learn how the TRU Math dimensions and tools supported classroom-embedded coaching to impact student success in mathematics, especially for diverse student populations.

 

Lead Speaker: Danielle Seabold
Co-Presenter: Diane Owen-Rogers

1508  12:30 PM to
1:30 PM
Travis C-DElementary
(K—5)
Regular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Everyone Has a Voice: Supporting English Language Learners Through Talk Protocols
English Language Learners (and many English dominant learners) need more than sentence frames and prompts to get them to become active participants during mathematics lessons. They need to be taught how to have mathematical conversations. We will examine video examples from Rachel's fourth grade classroom and discuss the power of structured talk protocols to support ALL students in productive mathematics conversation.

 

Lead Speaker: Eric Siegel
Co-Presenter: Rachel Woolley

 

Handout: NCSM17_1508_Siegel.pdf

1603  1:45 PM to
2:45 PM
Crockett A-BPrimary
(PK—2)
Regular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Kindergarten and Grade 1 Children Living in Poverty Can Learn the CCSSM Number and Operations in Base Ten (NBT) Concepts
We summarize a sequence of learning opportunities experienced by Kindergarten and Grade 1 children from backgrounds of poverty that led to learning the CCSSM NBT content at a high level. Children’s performance on tasks assessing deep understanding of NBT concepts will be shared. Participants will discuss videos showing children explaining their own mathematics drawings and will identify mathematics practices in action in these videos.

 

Lead Speaker: Karen Fuson

 

Handout: NCSM17_1603_Fuson.pdf

1604  1:45 PM to
2:45 PM
Crockett C-DElementary
(K—5)
Regular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Building Leadership Structures
In a network of schools in which needs and resources vary greatly by school, how do you build and support leadership structures equitably? See how a five-year project has built capacity and sustainable leadership structures centered on high-quality teaching and learning. Structures, tools and strategies will be shared as a result of the work within the project.

 

Lead Speaker: Denise Porter
Co-Presenter: Kathryn Flores

 

Handout: NCSM17_1604_Porter .pdf

1615  1:45 PM to
2:45 PM
IndependenceElementary
(K—5)
Technology ShowcaseEmpowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Deepen Student Understanding by Connecting Representations
Encouraging students to solve problems in multiple ways is only one piece of the understanding puzzle. Students must also learn to look for and make connections between representations and solution approaches. We will examine student work samples, generate and reflect on commentary, and discuss connections among student work and how they can have a profound impact on mathematics discussions in the classroom.

 

Lead Speaker: Meghan Hearn
Co-Presenter: Sean Nank
Co-Presenter: Colette Chambers

1720  3:00 PM to
4:00 PM
Mission BGeneralRegular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Empower Teachers to Reshape Student Outcomes! Applied Social Emotional Learning in the Classroom
The beliefs that students hold about themselves and their abilities, the approaches they take in academic situations, and the support they receive from adults have profound influence over their academic success. In this session participants will explore the connection between the Standards for Mathematical Practice and problem solving skills that challenge mindset, attending to both—non-cognitive need and the rigor of today’s academic standards.

 

Lead Speaker: Aurelia Milam

1806  4:15 PM to
5:15 PM
Seguin A-BGeneralRegular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

The Pittsburgh Urban Teaching Corps: A School/University Partnership for Equity
Every student deserves a great teacher. Due to teacher shortages, attrition, and inadequate preparation for the unique challenges of teaching in urban schools, many students in low-income communities do not have access to high quality, meaningful and relevant mathematics. This session will detail the partnership between a district and a local university; designed to recruit, develop, and retain high need/high quality teachers.

 

Lead Speaker: Lindsey Smith

1817  4:15 PM to
5:15 PM
Lone Star BMiddle
(6—8)
Regular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Using Dynamic Artifacts of English Learners' Thinking and Communication in Teacher Professional Development
Empowering students who are English Learners (ELs) to be active participants in classroom mathematical discourse communities requires teachers to attend and respond appropriately to students’ mathematical thinking and mathematical communication. Learn about professional development practices that build teachers’ understanding and skills in working with ELs by featuring dynamic artifacts of ELs’ use of mathematics visual representations.

 

Lead Speaker: Johannah Nikula
Co-Presenter: Pamela Buffington
Co-Presenter: Jill DePiper

 

Handout: NCSM17_1817_Nikula.pdf

 
Strand 4 Sessions, Tuesday, April 4
 
Strand 4: Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership


2102  8:15 AM to
9:15 AM
Texas DGeneralSpotlight SpeakerEmpowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Tracking, Equity, and the Many Paradoxes of Algebra II
What is Algebra II good for? For whom is it good? Phil Daro raised these and other questions for the Carnegie-Institute for Advanced Study Commission. Fast forward to now, and the debate about ‘what mathematics and why’ has found its way into the pages of the popular press. Is there anything district leaders can learn from this conversation? How might a district leader who prizes equity think about the question of tracking in school mathematics?

 

Lead Speaker: Jason Zimba

2103  8:15 AM to
9:15 AM
Crockett A-BPrimary
(PK—2)
Regular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Understanding Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS) in Mathematics
Response to Instruction—what do we know? Why does it work? Entering first grade with weak knowledge of number concepts and operations is a sign that early intervention is necessary. The foundational building block of MTSS is screening for at-risk status, particularly in the primary grades.

 

Lead Speaker: Amy Keller
Co-Presenter: Janet Greene

 

Handout: NCSM17_2103_Keller.pptx

2111  8:15 AM to
9:15 AM
Bonham BElementary
(K—5)
Regular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Reaching Diverse Learners in the Mathematics Classroom: The Principal's Role
Reaching diverse learners in a mathematics classroom has long been a priority of professional development (PD) for teachers. What is the principal's role in supporting the teachers in this endeavor? In Chicago Public Schools, a team from EDC and Bank Street College is studying the effects of PD on teachers and building a structure for principal support for the teachers. Come hear about the PD, the work with principals and the lessons learned.

 

Lead Speaker: Matthew McLeod
Co-Presenter: Hal Melnick

2201  10:00 AM to
11:00 AM
Texas E-FGeneralEquity LectureEmpowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Learning About Equity in Mathematics Education Through the Lens of Indigenous Perspectives
While there are numerous perspectives situated in languages and origin stories, among Indigenous communities around the world and in North America, there are threads of commonality. I will introduce you to some of the threads that I’ve come to learn from my Indigenous Elders, Knowledge Holders, and teachers. I will then invite you to imagine the ways in which the threads might inform the recurring equity issues in mathematics education. We’ve been at this work for years now yet we still see little difference in results. Perhaps we need to ‘look’ and ‘see’ differently and be informed by perspectives that are situated in teachings of relationships, balance, and commonalities in order to imagine a new way to think about equity. These perspectives, and our subsequent actions as leaders and educators, will help us to collectively achieve the goals outlined in the NCSM/TODOS joint position statement, "Mathematics Education Through the Lens of Social Justice."

 

Lead Speaker: Florence Glanfield

2206  10:00 AM to
11:00 AM
Seguin A-BGeneralRegular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Supporting All Teachers: Developing Instructional Leaders by Attending to Students' Mathematical Thinking
Teacher evaluation protocols often focus on learning environments and teacher actions and rarely on evidence of students’ learning, leading to vague feedback on actual learning. In this session we share what we have learned from a two-year study in one school district to help K-12 administrators notice students’ mathematical thinking and how that has changed administrators’ practices in providing focused and equitable support to each teacher.

 

Lead Speaker: Christine Avila
Co-Presenter: Cory Bennett

 

Handout: NCSM17_2206_Avila-Bennett.pdf

2212  10:00 AM to
11:00 AM
Bonham CGeneralRegular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Routines for Reasoning: Ensuring All Students Are Mathematical Thinkers
Instructional routines embody research-based best practices for struggling learners, especially when they focus on the Standards for Mathematical Practice and include ‘baked in’ supports for special populations. Participants will explore a universally designed instructional routine, Connecting Representations, and learn how to leverage it to develop teachers’ capacity to ensure development of ALL students’ mathematical practices.

 

Lead Speaker: Amy Lucenta
Co-Presenter: Grace Kelemanik

2217  10:00 AM to
11:00 AM
Lone Star BMiddle
(6—8)
Regular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Empowering Equity in Problem Solving
Research indicates that minority students can compete with and outperform their peers if given the opportunity to discuss mathematics problems, talking about how they choose solution methods and why they work. This interactive session teaches a process that is entirely student-centered and uses discourse as the pathway from understanding the problem and comparing solution plans to solving and making sense of the process. All students succeed!

 

Lead Speaker: Robyn Silbey

 

Handout: NCSM17_2217_Silbey.pdf

2301  11:15 AM to
12:15 PM
Texas E-FGeneralMajor PresentationEmpowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Using Identity and Agency to Frame Access and Equity
This session will use vignettes and the voices of students, teachers, and other school personnel to highlight NCTM's Principles to Actions Access and Equity Principle. Specifically, the session will use identity and agency as framework for discussing the obstacle and ways to overcome these obstacles as described in Principles to Actions. For this session, mathematics identity includes beliefs about one’s self as a mathematics learner; one’s perceptions of how others perceive them as a mathematics learner, beliefs about the nature of mathematics, engagement in mathematics, and perception of self as a potential participant in mathematics. Agency is identity in action and the presentation of one’s identity to the world. This session will conclude with a discussion of teaching practices that cultivate identity and agency to support Access and Equity.

 

Lead Speaker: Robert Q. Berry, III

2303  11:15 AM to
12:15 PM
Crockett A-BGeneralPresidents ExchangeEmpowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Empowerment WITH Access and Equity
While NCTM's messages on standards, curriculum, instruction, and assessment have evolved; messages on access and equity have remained static. Our messages around access and equity could do much more to better serve marginalized students and challenge structural obstacles. This session will address the critical need to shape and broaden the discourse around access and equity and NCTM’s related actions.

 

Lead Speaker: Matt Larson

2305  11:15 AM to
12:15 PM
Republic A-CElementary
(K—5)
Regular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

No Opt Out: Collaborative Coaching, Teaching and Learning Are Essential for Establishing Equitable Mathematics Classes
A district mathematics coach, interventionist, curriculum coordinator, and administrator will share how they made collaboration a priority in order to implement rigorous curriculum, instruction and professional development for ALL. Collaboration is challenging and rife with conflict, but it is essential for personal and collective growth! You will experience first hand how we collaborated at all levels to plan equitable mathematics lessons.

 

Lead Speaker: Sarah Caban
Co-Presenter: Abby Shink
Co-Presenter: Nancy Harriman

2318  11:15 AM to
12:15 PM
Lone Star CHigh School
(9—12)
Regular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Barriers to Equity: Changing Educator Actions
Relationships are key to student learning of mathematics. More awareness of adult words and actions is key (regardless of intent). Hear how Student Services has engaged in collaborative learning around the impact of micro-aggressions on our students, how these micro-aggressions play out in advising students in the selection of courses and in the classroom. Learn what this group is doing to teach classroom teachers about their role and impact.

 

Lead Speaker: Gwen Zimmermann
Co-Presenter: Janet Sushinski
Co-Presenter: Sarah Bowen
Co-Presenter: Lisa Scanio
Co-Presenter: Hector Vazquez

 

Handout: NCSM17_2318_Zimmermann.pdf

2501  2:15 PM to
3:15 PM
Texas E-FGeneralMajor PresentationEmpowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Redefining Success: Supporting All Students to Reach Their Full Potential
Juli, Alex, and Jessica provide a unique perspective on how to support ALL students to learn. Juli, a university mathematics educator, provides the viewpoint of both the educator and the parent of children with special needs. Alex, a college freshman, shares her story related to both medical and educational struggles. Jessica, a high school junior, provides the position of both the sibling and the subject and connects her experiences to a new perspective on Universal Design for Learning.

 

Lead Speaker: Juli Dixon
Co-Presenter: Alexis Dixon
Co-Presenter: Jessica Dixon

2517  2:15 PM to
3:15 PM
Lone Star BGeneralRegular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Equity and Social Justice in Mathematics Education
The vision of the NCSM Equity and Social Justice Initiative is to support, promote and develop a just, equitable and sustainable system of mathematics education for every learner. Participants will actively engage with the joint NCSM and TODOS position paper, Mathematics Education Through the Lens of Social Justice: Acknowledgement, Actions, and Accountability. Participants will consider next steps to move their organization forward in this work.

 

Lead Speaker: Comfort Akwaji-Anderson
Co-Presenter: Suyi Chuang
Co-Presenter: Kyndall Brown

2519  2:15 PM to
3:15 PM
Bowie A-CIntermediate
(3—5)
Regular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Mathematical Argument: Elementary Teachers Focus on Equity While Engaging Students in a Central Mathematics Practice
How do teachers in grades 2–5 engage the range of students in their class together in conjecture and justification? What teacher moves encourage the visibility of the intellectual work of all students? How are students with a history of poor or good performance in mathematics supported to make significant contributions as they learn about this central mathematics practice? Video examples will illustrate these questions.

 

Lead Speaker: Susan Jo Russell

 
Strand 4 Sessions, Wednesday, April 5
 
Strand 4: Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership


3101  8:45 AM to
9:45 AM
Texas E-FGeneralMajor PresentationEmpowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

The Best of Both Worlds: A University-District Partnership to Enhance Mathematics Instruction for English Language Learners
This session will focus on the design and implementation of a range of teacher professional development opportunities that a school, district, or state could employ to improve mathematics instruction for English Language Learners (ELLs). The presenters will share their unique university-district partnership to provide intensive professional development for classroom teachers (both mainstream and ESOL) through a Focus Group, on-site coaching support, and grant-funded graduate coursework. Informed by NCTM’s Principles to Actions, these initiatives complement each other in order to offer a comprehensive approach to teacher development aligned with the CCSSM Standards for Mathematical Practice, NCTM Teacher Practices, and WIDA English Language Development Standards. Specific teacher training materials and language-based instructional tools will be shared that have proven powerful for developing both mathematical discourse and the language of mathematics for ELLs.

 

Lead Speaker: Rodrigo Jorge Gutiérrez
Co-Presenter: Halla Jmourko

 

Handout: NCSM17_3101_Gutierrez-Jmourko.pdf

3114  8:45 AM to
9:45 AM
Bonham EHigh School
(9—12)
Regular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Reimagining Statistics Through Social Justice
We will explore how to engage the statistics learner in topics of social justice and critical theory, how to find resources, and how to incorporate these ideas of justice into the classroom and curriculum without losing a focus on rigor necessary to meet the demands of standards or Advanced Placement exams.

 

Lead Speaker: Glenn Waddell, Jr.
Co-Presenter: Megan Schmidt

 

Handout: NCSM17_3114_Waddell.pdf

3118  8:45 AM to
9:45 AM
Lone Star CElementary
(K—5)
Regular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Using an Online Course to Develop Instructional Practices That Support the Range of Learners
This session will describe an online course that engages math educators in reflecting on and developing practices that support the range of learners. Through simulation, participants will experience features such as classroom video clips, cases, and student work, and ways online course participants interact through a reflection notebook and a discussion forum. Presenters will highlight the affordances and challenges of the online environment.

 

Lead Speaker: Cynthia Garland-Dore

3119  8:45 AM to
9:45 AM
Bowie A-CSecondary
(6—12)
Regular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Still Fighting the Good Fight: Standing Up for Equity in Mathematics
San Francisco has worked for three years to implement a board policy that detracks math classes through the end of 10th grade, garnering both media attention and peer interest. Through research from the field and attention to our data we have framed this as a social justice issue and an instructional opportunity. The Superintendent and Math Administrator will reflect on our experiences and share artifacts, with ample time for questions.

 

Lead Speaker: Lizzy Hull Barnes
Co-Presenter: James Ryan

 

Handout: NCSM17_3119_Barnes.pdf

3202  10:00 AM to
11:00 AM
Texas DGeneralSpotlight SpeakerEmpowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Uncovering the Special Mathematical Work of Teaching
Helping students develop mathematical skills, ways of thinking, and identities, and supporting classrooms as equitable communities of practice, entails for teachers a specialized set of instructional skills specific to the domain. We will examine instances of this sensitive work, analyze the kinds of mathematical and other skills and orientations involved for teachers, and consider how fluency with such practices can be developed and supported.

 

Lead Speaker: Deborah Ball

3217  10:00 AM to
11:00 AM
Lone Star BSecondary
(6—12)
Regular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Shrinking the Equity Gap in Secondary Mathematics Coursework: Implications for College Enrollment and Completion
Session shares longitudinal analysis of income gaps in secondary mathematics course taking, how more advanced mathematics in high school predicts better higher education outcomes, and mathematics professional development and acceleration models targeted to shrink the equity gap for readiness for 8th grade algebra. Session incorporates pipeline approach and discussion for ensuring equity in mathematics preparation geared to mathematics leadership.

 

Lead Speaker: Amy Wiseman
Co-Presenter: Christine Bailie

 

Handout: NCSM17_3217_Wiseman.pdf

3318  11:15 AM to
12:15 PM
Lone Star CHigh School
(9—12)
Regular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Addressing Issues of Status in Problem-Based High School Mathematics Classrooms
This session featuring a teacher leader and the director of a statewide project will actively focus on ways to address issues of status in the mathematics classroom. Using video-based episodes, participants will identify specific instances when issues of status are at play, and, working together, consider strategies and norms that will support teachers in promoting more equitable learning environments in their classrooms and schools.

 

Lead Speaker: Jamila Riser
Co-Presenter: Robin Corrozi

 

Handout: NCSM17_3318_Riser.pdf

3503  2:15 PM to
3:15 PM
Crockett A-BSecondary
(6—12)
Regular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Building High-Leverage Professional Learning Systems with Research-Informed Tools for Equity and Access in Mathematics
As leaders, how can we support educators in acting on their commitment to access and equity, especially for underrepresented populations, cultivating competent mathematics problem solvers, and enacting the five dimensions outlined in the TRU Math Framework? Learn how our team engages faculty in ongoing professional development that enables them to deepen their understanding of these ideas and strategies while routinely putting them into practice.

 

Lead Speaker: Lisa Brown
Co-Presenter: Danielle Seabold
Co-Presenter: Diane Owen-Rogers

3509  2:15 PM to
3:15 PM
Presidio AGeneralPresidents ExchangeEmpowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Positioning Yourself to Be an Advocate, Even When It Is Not Popular!
The status quo does not work! The Benjamin Banneker Association has long advocated for the education of African-American students. Our session will focus on these questions, "What does it look like when educators are empowered to be advocates for themselves and their students?" "What does it really look like when students are empowered to the point that they can make informed decisions about their future? What steps can we take to effect change?"

 

Lead Speaker: Margaret Walker
Co-Presenter: Brea Ratliff

3518  2:15 PM to
3:15 PM
Lone Star CGeneralRegular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Mathematics Education for Black and Latina Urban Youths: A Humanistic View
Come see how educators use challenges and dynamics of urbanicity as an asset to teaching and not an obstacle for learning. Participants will examine assumptions about cultural congruence and what it takes to successfully teach Black and Latina urban mathematics students. This session will examine fixed and growth mindsets of educators, student scarcity, and instructional practices for urban mathematics classes.

 

Lead Speaker: Rolonda Payne

3607  3:30 PM to
4:30 PM
Travis A-BGeneralRegular Presentation (60 minutes)Empowering Equity and Social Justice Leadership

Maximize Mathematical Reasoning with Minimal Language Demands
Activities that promote mathematical reasoning are essential for developing mathematically proficient students. Building fluency and flexibility with numbers is equally essential. I will share several activities, resources, and adaptation strategies that promote both reasoning and fluency in ways that build deeper mathematical understanding.

 

Lead Speaker: Dean Ballard

 

Handout: NCSM17_3607_Ballard.pdf
Handout: NCSM17_3607_Ballard.pptx

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